1. "Congress: Representation: The Legislator as
Delegate by The Virginia Assembly, The Legislator
as Trustee by John F. Kennedy, and The Legislator
as Politico by George Galloway," Points
of View: Readings in American Government and Politics
by Robert DiClerico and Allan Hammock, 1989.
These three pieces delineate the arguments
that legislators directly re-present their constituents
versus the arguments that legislators should be trusted
to do what is best for their constituents versus the
arguments that legislators should act both as delegate
2. Government By The People by Burns, Peltason,
Cronin, and Magleby (18th Edition, 2000)
Chapter 1 defines the concept of democracy.
Chapter 9 discusses the origins, types, and roles
of interest groups as well as the instruments interest
groups use in achieving their goals.
Chapter 14 illustrates how Congress functions.
3. Magruders American Government by
McClenaghan (1999 Edition)
Chapter 1 defines the concept of democracy
Chapter 9 discusses interest groups
Chapters 10-12 illustrate how Congress functions
4. Points of View: Readings in American Government
and Politics by Robert DiClerico and Allan Hammock,
Chapter 1 of this book contains two articles that
evaluate the state of American democracy and Chapter
10 has three articles on theories of congressional
5."Demosclerosis," The New Democrat,
June/July 1994, pp. 7-12
This article details how interest groups dominate
Congress to the extent that legislation that benefits
the entire nation is neglected
6. "Reforming the Biggest Lobby," Insight,
October 23, 1995, pp. 8-10
This article explains government agencies and
interest groups work hand-in-hand to embellish themselves
at the expense of general public.
7."Going to Extremes, Losing The Center",
National Journal, June 18, 1994, pp. 1394-1398
In short, this article suggests that the sum of
all interest groups is not the national interest,
and it never will be.
8."Do Political Action Committees Undermine
Democracy?" Elizabeth Drew, Politics and Money,
(New York, 1983) and "The Campaign Reform Failure"
Robert Samuelson, The New Republic, September
The piece from journalist Elizabeth Drew suggests
that interested money is buying our politicians
and details solutions, mainly public financing of
campaigns, and the selection from Robert Samuelson
suggests there is no strong proof that legislators
are bought by special interests in any way that
is detrimental to national interests.
9."The Capitals Indian War, Newsweek,
December 22, 1997, p. 71 and "Lobbies with wolves,
U.S. News & World Report, November 10,
1997, p. 59
These two articles report on interest group influence
in the administrative branch of the United States
10."Give pols free money, no rules," U.S.
News & World Report, December 29, 1997/January
5, 1998, pp. 54-56
This piece provides interesting alternatives to
the way Congress presently amasses funds to run
11."One Cheer for Soft Money," Steven Schier,
The Washington Monthly, July/August 2000, pp.
This article makes a case for campaign finance
reforms that will regulate but not eliminate soft
money, and will thus strengthen political parties
12."Should McCain-Feingold campaign reforms
pass? No: Legislation plays party favorites while
it tries to scrap free speech," Robert Levy,
The author makes the point that political expression
will suffer if McCain-Feingold-Cochran passes
13."Campaign Finance Reform, Time to Abolish
the Wealth Primary?," John Bonifaz and Jamin
Raskin, The Center for Voting and Democracy, 8/23/2000
This selection makes the statement that the present
system of financing political campaigns is inconsistent
with democracy and calls for the public financing
14. "Making the World Safer for Incumbents:
The Consequences of McCain-Feingold-Cochran, Policy
Analysis, March 14, 2001
This lengthy article details how McCain-Feingolds
elimination of soft money will not resolve the problem
of interested money; in fact, it suggests that incumbents
will have even safer seats, that money will be funneled
through independent expenditures.
15."2000 Presidential Race: Total Raised and
Spent," The Center for Responsive Politics
This chart shows the total amounts raised and spent
by the major candidates in the 2000 presidential
16."Campaign Finance Reform," The Center
For Responsive Politics, http://www.opensecrets.org/news/campaign.finance.asp
This is a general summary of the issue of campaign
financing, with an excellent chart showing how much
"hard" and "soft" money the
Democrats and Republicans raised in election 2000.
17."Shakedown," Washington Watchdog Project,
This article focuses on the efforts legislators
make to solicit interest group funding and shows
the correlation between money and legislation.
18."Congressional Research Service, Report for
Congress 97-1040: Campaign Financing: Highlights and
Chronology of Current Federal Law, Joseph E. Cantor,
March 8, 2000 http://www.cnie.org/nle/rsk-43.html
This is an excellent summary of existing campaign
finance laws, amendments to those laws, and Supreme
Court cases related to these laws
19."How The Little Guy Gets Crunched,"Donald
Barlett and James Steele, Time, February 7,
Barlett and Steele illustrate how big money interests
needs are met by Congress at the expense of the
20."Health Care: Prescription Drugs," June
This short piece suggests that pharmaceutical
interests will prevent Congress from providing prescription
drug coverage under Medicare.
21. "New Friends: The American Medical Association,
Democrats and the Patients Bill of Rights,"
The Center for Responsive Politics, June 18, 2001
This brief selection suggests that the American
Medical Association sinks a good deal of money into
supporting legislators who support AMA goals.
22."Soft Money Contributions From Special Interests
Are Being Channeled Through State Parties", March
This article suggests a need to eliminate soft
23."Dear Senator," March 20, 2001
This is the American Civil Liberties Union position
on McCain-Feingold, essentially opposing it because
of the bills "suppression of free speech."
24."Mr. Smith Goes to Washington," Frank
This Frank Capra film is a fictionalized account
of the power of interested money in the United States